Plant Medicine

what is

Plant Medicine

Plant medicines are natural medicines used to return your body to its natural state so that it may heal itself from any ailment.

Herbal medicines may use an entire plant or be made from plant parts, such as the leaves, roots or flowers. Therapeutic products made from plants may be called herbal medicines, botanical products, herbal supplements, or phytomedicines.

What Can Plant Medicine Be Used to Treat?

Plant medicine is a natural medicinal property that can be used to treat a multitude of ailments both physical and psychological. It can even help patients who are struggling with chemotherapy treatments and chronic vascular and mental health conditions.

Shaman working with feathers during plant medicine ceremony

How is Plant Medicine Used?

Plant medicines come in many forms including dried, chopped, powdered, capsule, or liquid.

They can be used in various ways, depending on your need. Common uses include:


  • Brewed as tea
  • Swallowed as capsules, powders, or tinctures
  • Inhaled as smoke, steam, or vapor
  • Applied to the skin as gels, lotions, or creams
  • Added to bath water


Plant medicine can be used to treat numerous physical and mental ailments when used properly and under the right guidance.

Plant-based medicines are used to treat and prevent diseases and chronic illness, and they also promote nutritional and digestive health.

In addition to treatment, plant medicines are often used to support great mental well-being and clarity by awakening your spirit and broadening your horizons.

Plant medicines should only be used with full guidance from an experienced shaman or healer to ensure complete safety.

History of Plant Medicine

Plant medicine has been used for centuries and many uses today have deep ties to indigenous cultures across the world.

The earliest evidence of plant medicine being used is from a cave drawing in the Sahara desert in Algeria, estimated to be between 7,000 and 9,000 years old.

Meanwhile, the use of the San Pedro cactus (which also contains mescaline) is more than 3,000 years old in Peru. It was some time before Westerners discovered the use of psychedelics among different cultures.

Such discoveries were first made by European explorers who sailed to Latin America.

In 1496, Friar Ramon Pane, who accompanied Christopher Columbus on his second journey to the Americas, noted how the Taino people of Haiti/Dominican Republic would consume a psychoactive snuff called cohoba/yopo.

In 1560, Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, a Spanish missionary priest, wrote in his Florentine Codex about how the Aztecs were using peyote and psychedelic mushrooms.

In 1851, English ethnobotanist Richard Spruce observed the Tukano Indians of Brazil drinking ayahuasca.

In 1864, French physician Griffon du Bellay reported the use of iboga root in Gabon and the Congo.

natural herbs made into medicine.

See What a Plant Medicine Retreat Is Like

Common Types of Ceremonial Medicines

Mambe is a sacred and traditional substance among indigenous communities in South America. It’s a symbol of connection to the earth, tradition, and spirituality. 

Mambe is a combination of two main ingredients: powdered coca leaves and the ashes of certain tree barks, often the Cecropia tree. Coca leaves contain alkaloids, particularly cocaine, which in its natural state within the leaves, has minimal psychoactive effects. Coca leaves have been used in South America for centuries. To the native people, the Coca plant is the ancient carrier of cosmic wisdom, giving strength and clarity to their thoughts and words. It also has a long list of nutritional and healing properties. It is a powerful plant medicine when used with healthy intention.

Mambe’s preparation involves meticulous steps. The coca leaves are first dried and then pulverized into a fine powder. Ashes from the Cecropia tree bark, collected and burned, are then added to this powder. The resulting mixture is carefully combined, often by elders or spiritual leaders, and then placed in a special container traditionally made from plant fibers or natural materials.

During ceremonies or gatherings, participants take turns using a small spoon to scoop a bit of mambe from the container and place it into their mouths. On the other side of the mouth, a tobacco paste called Ambil is places. The two are allowed to mix with saliva and absorb into the bloodstream.

Mambe goes beyond its chemical components; it’s a symbol of tradition, spirituality, and community. For indigenous groups, it’s a way to connect with their roots, honor their ancestors, and seek guidance from the spiritual world. 

Hapé (pronounced “ha-peh”), or rapé (“rah-peh”) is a very powerful plant medicine, which originates from the Amazon.

It is a finely ground powder, made from tobacco and the ashes of trees and herbs from the Amazon Rainforest.

While rapé is often made of several Amazonian plants, the core of most rapé snuffs is the tobacco species Nicotiana rustica. This Amazonian tobacco, also known as mapacho, is used extensively in tribal rituals and is much stronger than N. tabacum, the type of tobacco found in cigarettes. In addition to tobacco, rapé usually includes the alkaline ashes of other plants such as cinnamon, tonka bean, clover, banana peel, or mint, but many shamans keep the exact ingredients of their particular rapé a secret.

Hapé is administer by a pajé (the Brazilian term for ‘shaman’) with a tepi or by yourself with a kuripe. The powder is scooped into a pipe and blown into the nose, one nostril at a time.

The affects take place immediately, but vary based on the strength of the blend and the size of the dose. Some experiences can be a mild calming moment and others can be long purging/psychoactive journeys. Hapé is a cleansing medicine, so after taking it, you may experience side effects such as vomiting, sweating, and diarrhea. Although this is an admittedly uncomfortable part of the experience, some people say the pain is an integral part of the spiritual and physical cleansing process—by purging deep-seated toxins, you come out the other side of the experience feeling calmer, more focused, and more in line with your true self. 

Hapé is gaining more popularity outside of the Amazon for its medicinal properties. For people interested to try it, it’s important to find a reputable source for the sacred tobacco. We reccomend getting it from the tribe you work with, or from Four Visions Market.

While you can administer hapé yourself or with a trusted server, it’s also important to educate yourself on its proper usage. Do not administer hapé to others if you have not mastered purifying your own energy. It is safe, and helpful to work directly with hapé yourself to aid in your healing journey.

Tobacco is a powerful master plant, one of the oldest and most widely used across the Americas. Hapé is a powerful medicine, and should be used with intention, gratitude and respect.


Benefits of Using Hapé

  • Helps focus and sharpen the mind.
  • Clears a person or space of distracting, negative energies
  • Detoxes both body and mind
  • Clears your energetic field. Because of this, rapé is often used in conjunction with ayahuasca ceremonies.
  • Clears sinuses of mucus and bacteria to combat colds and respiratory ailments.
  • Grounds the body to earth.
  • Helps treat addiction and mental illness

Sananga is a sacred medicine from the Amazon Rainforest. It is an extremely powerful eye drop, made from the roots and bark of Tabernaemontana undulata, a shrub which is found in Brazil and other South American countries.

The bark and root is ground into a very fine powder and then extracted into a juice, which is then administered to the eyes. 

It is ancestral to the tribes found in the Amazon region such as the Kaxinawás, Shanenawá, Matsés and Yawanawá. Sananga is used to clear eyesight, both spiritually and pysically. Traditionally, sananga was used sharpen the eyes for night vision while hunting, however, Sananga does more than that.


This sacred and powerful medicine is used to treat and prevent ocular diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, farsightedness, nearsightedness and even blindness. Spirutally, Sanga brings alignment. Sananga is commonly used alongside Ayahuasca due to its capacity to increase perception and clear energy. It is sometimes used to restore presence and alignment during a ceremony, if necessary . 


Sananga eye drops cause an intense burning sensation that typically lasts for a few minutes, but experienced practitioners claim that the pain is an important part of the healing process. They advise breathing deeply into the discomfort in order to reap all of Sananga’s benefits.



Some of the benefits of Tabernaemontana genus which is found in sananga:


Antimicrobial: Studies show that Tabernaemontana pachysiphon and Tabernaemontana angulata, found in sananga, are effective in treating skin infections because of its antimicrobial properties.


Antifungal: Tabernaemontana stapfiana is effective in preventing fungal growth.


Antioxidant: Tabernaemontana genus also has strong antioxidant properties which play a critical role in preventing age-related ocular problems.


Anti-inflammatory: Tabernaemontana pandacaqui has anti-inflammatory effects used for treating arthritis. 


Anti-cancer: Study shows that Tabernaemontana species, specifically the T. elegans is an effective cancer healer.



The active principle of sananga is ibogaine which is a psychoactive alkaloid and mild stimulant in small doses, but can induce a profound psychedelic state if used in larger doses.


Apart from ibogaine, several other alkaloids, such as coronaridine, quebrachidine, heyneanine, 3-hydroxycoronaridine and voacangine are found in contained in sananga. All of these alkaloids have powerful psychoactive and strong antibiotic effects.


Like other psychedelics, sananga can cause mental, visual and auditory changes, and an altered state of mind. But many find sananga to be a unique type of psychedelic not only because of how it is administered but how the pain affects the body.


The burning sensation one can feel after administration causes the release of endorphins, a chemical produced by the body to ease the pain, which stay in the body after the sananga is gone, leading to a feeling of utmost relaxation.

As plant medicine and psychedelics have become more mainstream and more acceptable forms of medicinal treatments, one of the most popular psychedelics has become ayahuasca.


Ayahuasca is a plant-based psychedelic brew made primarily from the Banisteriopsis caapi vine (Ayahuasca vine) which acts as an MAO inhibitor and the Psychotria viridis shrub (Chacruna) which contains the hallucinogen, DMT. It’s most commonly used  by indigenous tribes along the Amazon, particularly in Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. 


Sometimes other plants are added to the concoction, depending on the region and lineage of the tribe. Ayahuasca is considered a “master plant” and is referred to as “sacred medicine.” It has been used for centuries in shamanic ceremonial practices for healing and spiritual expansion by indigenous tribes living in the Amazon regions.


The plants, native to the Amazon rainforest, are mashed or macerated and boiled then strained through a fine cloth, with some recipes calling for further dilution before ingestion. Prayers in the form of songs or chants are offered throughout the process to connect with the plant spirits, set intentions and to strengthen its effects. 


The entire process takes days and usually requires fasting for those working with it to preserve its energetic purity. The effects of ayahuasca vary from person to person depending on the preparation, setting, amount consumed and the individual’s reaction to the medicine. 


Ayahuasca use has spread worldwide recently due to its reported physical, emotional and spiritual benefits when used responsibly with an extensively trained facilitator. Read on to learn more about ayahuasca and how it’s used.


Traditionally, Ayahuasca was used for spiritual and religious purposes and physical healing. Today, it is used worldwide by people who are seeking to heal from past traumas and physical ailments, gain clarity, expand their self awareness and consciousness, or to just experience an Ayahuasca journey. 


There are many reasons one would sit with this sacred medicine, but whatever the reason may be, one leaves the experience feeling different than ever before.


Ayahuasca is offered in many retreat centers across Costa Rica, Peru, Brazil, and Colombia and in more traditional settings among indigenous communities throughout the Amazon region. The sacred medicine is served in a ceremonial setting with groups varying in size and is served by a shaman/healer or medicine man/woman who has been extensively trained by a specific lineage.

Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a desert-dwelling plant primarily found in northern Mexico, particularly in the Wirikuta Desert of San Luis Potosí. Its bluish-green hue distinguishes it from most other cacti, and notably, it lacks the typical spines seen on cacti. This unique plant, known for its medicinal properties, has been historically used to address various ailments like arthritis, stomach issues, asthma, influenza, diabetes, and venomous animal bites.

The absence of spines leaves the peyote vulnerable to predators, prompting it to develop an unpleasant taste as a defense mechanism. Over fifty alkaloids contribute to this taste, many of which possess psychoactive properties. The most famous among these is mescaline, renowned for its ability to induce hallucinations and intense states of euphoria. Consuming varying amounts of mescaline leads to distinct experiences: small doses may result in euphoria and heightened empathy, while larger doses trigger vivid visual hallucinations, synesthetic perceptions, and even profound spiritual experiences.

To feel the effects of peyote, individuals typically consume mescaline extracted from several peyote heads, with as few as three heads considered a low dose. However, spiritual leaders like Marakame often consume more than ten buttons to achieve profound altered states of consciousness.

The plant’s extreme bitterness necessitates pairing it with a sweet drink to make its taste tolerable. Peyote is commonly consumed fresh but can also be dehydrated, preserved with honey, or brewed as an infusion. Effects begin to manifest one to two hours post-consumption and can last up to eight hours.

Beyond consumption, peyote finds use in traditional medicine, applied topically—fresh or as an ointment—to alleviate muscle, bone, and joint pain, as well as to treat skin infections and superficial wounds.

Peyote has a long history various indigenous groups, such as the Wixarika, Huichol, Náayeri, Tapehuánes, and Rarámuri in Mexico, as well as the Kiowa, Diné, and Comanche in the United States. Pre-Hispanic accounts trace the knowledge of peyote’s healing properties to ancient Mexican civilizations like the Chichimecas and Toltecs. Evidence suggests peyote has been regularly used by diverse groups for at least 5,000 years. Presently, the Native American Church, established in the late 19th century, stands as the primary custodian of peyote rituals.

For indigenous cultures, peyote isn’t just a substance; it’s a sacred tool that helps them connect to their roots, their beliefs, and their spirituality. It’s a way to honor traditions, seek wisdom, and find harmony within themselves and the world they inhabit.

Now, peyote faces significant threats due to overharvesting and habitat loss. Sustainable sourcing of peyote is crucial to conserve this endangered cactus while respecting its cultural and medicinal significance.

Efforts to sustainably source peyote involve various strategies:

  1. Cultivation Initiatives: Some groups and organizations are cultivating peyote in controlled environments, mimicking its natural habitat. Cultivation allows for controlled growth, reducing pressure on wild populations. This approach ensures a steady supply for ceremonial and medicinal purposes while protecting wild populations.

  2. Regulation and Legal Protection: Several regions have imposed regulations to protect wild peyote populations. These regulations may limit harvesting to certain times of the year, control the number of plants that can be harvested, or enforce penalties for illegal collection. Legal protection helps prevent overexploitation and ensures that harvesting practices are sustainable.

  3. Community Involvement and Education: Engaging indigenous communities and local stakeholders in conservation efforts is crucial. Educating people about the importance of preserving peyote, its ecological role, and sustainable harvesting practices fosters a sense of stewardship among communities dependent on this plant. It also promotes traditional knowledge and cultural practices associated with peyote.

  4. Research and Monitoring: Continuous monitoring of wild populations is essential to understand their status and trends. Research helps identify sustainable harvesting levels, assess the impact of harvesting on ecosystems, and develop conservation strategies based on scientific data.

  5. Ethical and Responsible Harvesting: Encouraging ethical practices among those who harvest peyote is vital. This includes harvesting only mature plants, leaving some individuals to ensure natural reproduction, and utilizing only what is necessary for ceremonies or medicinal purposes.

By combining these approaches, it’s possible to promote the sustainable sourcing of peyote while safeguarding its cultural heritage and ecological importance. Balancing the needs of indigenous traditions with conservation efforts is key to ensuring the longevity of this endangered cactus.

Cannabis, is a complex plant that belongs to the Cannabaceae family. It contains about 540 chemical compounds, including more than 100 cannabinoids, the most well known of which are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Like many master plants, cannabis has been part of spiritual practices for thousands of years. It has deep roots in Hinduism, Islam, Rastafarianism, and indigenous traditions in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere. Beyond recreational and medical use, Cannabis can be used as a sacred and ancient plant teacher for the purposes of inner healing and personal transformation. 

Cannabis has a long and colorful history. The use of cannabis originated in central Asia or western China. Cannabis has been used for its healing properties for millennia. The first documented case of its use dates back to 2800 BC, when it was listed in the Emperor Shen Nung’s (regarded as the father of Chinese medicine) pharmacopeia. Therapeutic indications of cannabis are mentioned in the texts of the Indian Hindus, Assyrians, Greeks and Romans. These texts reported cannabis to treat a vast array of different health problems, including arthritis, depression, amenorrhea, inflammation, pain, lack of appetite and asthma.

In a harmonized set and setting, cannabis allows us to go inwards and become more aware of our bodies. When it comes to plant medicine, cannabis can be a gentle introduction for those new to the field. In a therapeutic setting, it can mimic some of the somatic and visual effects of psilocybin, dmt, and ayahuasca. It differs from other psychedelics in that the user retains a sense of agency and has the option of pausing the experience at any time. 

Healing involves processing and reprogramming traumatic and painful memories so that in the present day we can walk lighter and stronger – we are helping ourselves let go of past pain and how it has been held in our bodies. The correlation between trauma reprocessing work and the “letting go” that often takes place during cannabis ceremonies and other psychedelic plant medicines is explained by modern neuroscience. Both of these techniques allow trapped energy to be “sequenced” in the nervous system, especially when it comes to fight/flight/freeze reactions. And they both help to unwind deeply held tension that is stored in the physical body. During both of these processes, we can either surrender or fight the experience.


New research supports a number of potential health benefits of cannabis containing THC (as opposed to containing CBD exclusively).

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved several prescription drugs featuring synthetic substances similar to THC to help people navigate the uncomfortable side effects often experienced with cancer chemotherapy. Marinol and Syndros both contain dronabinol (synthetic THC), which is used to treat nausea and vomiting. Meanwhile, Cesamet contains nabilone, another synthetic substance similar to THC, and is also used to address nausea and vomiting, as well as loss of appetite and weight in patients with HIV/AIDS.

Managing Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity

Sativex, an oral spray medication available by prescription, contains both THC and CBD and is used in 25 countries to help treat muscle stiffness and spasms caused by multiple sclerosis. In Canada specifically, Sativex is used as an adjunctive treatment (alongside a primary treatment) in adult patients who haven’t responded well enough to other therapies and show meaningful improvement during an initial trial with the drug. In the U.S., Sativex is still being tested as a treatment for adults with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

Easing Chronic Pain

Evidence suggests medications that combine THC and CBD can be effective treatments for chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain (pain caused by nerve damage), nociceptive pain (pain caused by ongoing inflammation and related damage) and nociplastic pain (pain arising from the altered function of pain-related sensory pathways), according to a 2022 review of clinical research in Inflammopharmacology. The researchers add that this combination of cannabinoids tends to be more easily tolerated, safer and less addictive than opioid-based analgesics.

Improving Sleep Quality

A 2018 study in Sleep found participants with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who took dronabinol (synthetic THC) before bed experienced a reduction in the number of times their breathing was interrupted during sleep. The 10-milligram dose performed better than the 2.5-milligram dose and placebo. Participants also experienced stronger sensations of sleepiness[2].

Another 2014 study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine also observed an association between dronabinol use and improved sleep metrics in patients with OSA.

More Potential Health Benefits of Cannabis

Krissy Bernazani, registered pharmacist and clinical director at medical cannabis dispensary Zen Leaf Maryland, says the most common health and wellness needs she and her team address with cannabis include:



Nausea and vomiting

Appetite loss


Inflammatory bowel disease

Rheumatoid arthritis

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive alkaloid in the West African shrub iboga. While ibogaine is a mild stimulant in small doses, in larger doses it induces a profound psychedelic state. 

Historically, it has been used in healing ceremonies and initiations by members of the Bwiti religion in various parts of West Africa. People who struggle with substance abuse have found that larger doses of ibogaine can significantly reduce effects of withdrawl, and heal addiction. 

It is widely believed that the Pygmie tribe from Central Africa first encountered the iboga shrub in Gabon and Cameroon. Iboga yields simple yellow flowers and an almost tasteless sticky orange citrus fruit. But the Pygmies came to realize that when the root bark was scraped off, ground into powder and ingested, it had powerful psychedelic properties. The Pygmies passed this knowledge along to others, and planted the seeds of the Bwiti spiritual discipline.

Bwiti is a spiritual discipline practiced among the Babongo and Mitsogo people of Gabon, and the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon. Ibogaine is at the core of their rituals and beliefs. The substance is used to promote radical spiritual growth, to stabilize community and family structure, to meet religious requirements, and to resolve pathological problems.

When Bwiti shamans consume Ibogaine, they believe that they gain the ability to heal the sick, communicate with the dead, and experience visions of the future. Perhaps most significantly, Iboga is crucial to the initiation rites and coming of age rituals of the Bwiti. According to Daniel Lieberman, an expert on Bwiti culture, “they believe that before initiation the neophyte is nothing. Through the ceremony you become something…a baanzi, one who knows the other world because you have seen it with your own eyes.” According to Lieberman, the Bwiti believe that ibogaine is a “superconscious spiritual entity that guides mankind.” The majority of the Bwiti people consume Iboga as part of their coming of age ritual, and it is a fundamental building block of their culture and community.  

Native to the Andean mountain range of South America, huachuma (Echinopsis pachanoi) is also known as San Pedro (Saint Peter) because it is said to be the key that opens the gates of heaven. With its potential to catalyze deep healing at many levels, both for individuals and society, it is a master plant that has much to offer those looking for a profound entheogenic experience.


Huachuma is a tall columnar cactus related to Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and contains the same psychoactive hallucinogenic ingredient, mescaline. Peyote is widely used by various tribes in Northern Mexico as well as the Native American Church in the United States to produce a visionary state where profound introspection takes place. While huachuma has been off the radar for many people – even within the plant medicine world – the fact that Peyote cactus is endangered and hard to come by is opening up a new opportunity for huachuma to play a key role in conscious evolution as a powerful psychedelic natural medicine.

Huachuma contains mescaline, which is a phenethylamine and is chemically related to MDMA [ecstasy], while LSD, DMT [the main compound in ayahuasca] and psilocybin [the main compound in mushrooms] are in the tryptamine family. So mescaline is unique among the major hallucinogens in that it is a phenethylamine.


Make no mistake, huachuma can produce visions just like ayahuasca can. At lower doses, it has the feel-good happiness of MDMA, with a mushroom-like quality of feeling like a child while at the same time being slightly less jarring, and more loving than either ayahuasca or mushrooms.


Because it is a bit gentler than many of the other plant teachers, huachuma has earned the nickname “The Grandfather” around the medicine community. Mescaline itself is nontoxic. And, while there are few studies done on huachuma itself, a Harvard Medical School study that investigated the long-term effects of regular peyote use among members of the Native American Church found “no evidence of psychological or cognitive deficits” at all.


While DMT and psilocybin are powerful hallucinogens, they are not as powerful empathogens [subtances that make you feel empathy] as mescaline. Mescaline—whether huachuma or peyote—could be great for people with PTSD, deep guilt, or other personal issues that require a gentler and more ‘loving’ compound than DMT, LSD, or psilocybin

Psilocybin is the primary psychoactive compound in psychedelic mushrooms. Its effects are in many ways similar to those of LSD and mescaline. Recent clinical trials have shown that psilocybin may be an effective treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, cancer-related anxiety and depression, and for addiction to nicotine and alcohol. Thus, psilocybin is an emerging and promising treatment for a range of mental disorders where existing drugs have shown major shortcomings.

Nearly 150 species from the Kingdom of Fungi have been identified as having psychedelic effects, the majority of them in the Psilocybe genus, from the Greek words ‘psilos’ (bare) and ‘kub’ (head). 

Physical evidence of humans interacting with mushrooms comes from cave rock drawings dating from 10,000 BC in the Tassili Plateau in Saharan Algeria which depict anthropomorphic mushroom beings dancing. Some Northern European rock art depicts various mushroom themes, and Bronze Age vessels have been found decorated with mushroom-related work.

It was only thanks to the accounts of mushroom ceremonies (veladas) in the Oaxaca region of Mexico in the 1950s that pharmaceutical labs became interested in psilocybin. Oaxaca, a region in southern Mexico, has a long history entwined with the ceremonial and cultural use of magic mushrooms, particularly species containing psilocybin. For centuries, indigenous communities in Oaxaca, including the Mazatec and Mixtec peoples, have revered these mushrooms for their spiritual and healing properties. The sacred use of mushrooms in Oaxacan indigenous rituals involves specific ceremonies led by healers or spiritual guides. These ceremonies are often conducted in a sacred setting, typically at night and sometimes accompanied by chants, prayers, or traditional rituals to evoke spiritual experiences.

The Mazatec, in particular, have a rich tradition with these mushrooms, referring to them as “holy children” or “little saints.” María Sabina, a Mazatec curandera (traditional healer), became widely known in the 1950s for introducing Westerners, including ethnomycologist R. Gordon Wasson, to the ritualistic use of psilocybin-containing mushrooms. This encounter led to increased interest and research into the psychoactive properties of these fungi.

Recenrtly, psilocybin has gained attention for its potential healing benefits. Studies indicate that psilocybin, when used in controlled settings and with proper guidance, has positive impacts on conditions like depression, anxiety, and PTSD. It seems to work by altering brain activity, leading to a shift in perception and potentially allowing individuals to approach their emotions and experiences from new perspectives.

One significant aspect is its ability to induce mystical or profound spiritual experiences, which some people find deeply meaningful and transformative. These experiences might foster a sense of interconnectedness, purpose, and well-being.


Bufo is a powerful and potent psychedelic that comes from the Colorado River (or Sonoran Desert) Toad. Using Bufo helps you put ego aside to enable connecting with a divine source.

Interestingly enough, though some 5-MeO-DMT plants have a history of traditional use (like ayahuasca), we are still looking for the history of indigenous Bufo practices. There is also a synthetic version of 5-MeO-DMT—which has less variance in potency than the version that comes from the toad.

Bufo is smoked directly in a pipe or vape and quickly goes into and out of the bloodstream. The medicine is collected when the Bufo alvarius toad comes out of hibernation—its poison-secreting gland is milked, the venom is collected and dried. It then turns to a powdery crystal that can be smoked. The synthetic version is smoked differently. 

Burof’s visionary effects take hold very quickly – within minutes – after ingestion and last anywhere from 20 minutes to an hour. People who have taken Bufo often describe their experience as being one with the universe and feeling reborn. Some describe a fusion with God, a visceral connection with the divine source. Others experience colors, looping fractal patterns, and a sense of connection with the universe/all beings. Bufo is considered to be five to six times stronger than DMt.

Nature’s vaccine or Kambo is an indigenous medicine used in a healing ritual from South America. It’s named after the poisonous secretions of the giant monkey frog, or Phyllomedusa bicolor

The frog secretes the substance to protect from UV rays high up in the treetops of rainforests.

Indigenous people have used kambo for centuries to heal and cleanse the body by strengthening its natural defenses and warding off bad luck. It was also believed to increase stamina and hunting skills.

These days shamans and naturopathic practitioners still use it for cleansing the body of toxins, as well as treating numerous health conditions.

Proponents of kambo believe it can help with a range of conditions, including:

  • addiction
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • anxiety
  • cancer
  • chronic pain
  • depression
  • diabetes
  • hepatitis
  • HIV and AIDS
  • infections
  • infertility
  • rheumatism
  • vascular conditions

Kambo is not psychedelic, but is very powerful medicine nonetheless. Kambo contains a complex cocktail of bioactive peptides and proteins. These substances are responsible for the medicinal effects of Kambo when applied to the skin.

The key proteins found in Kambo are peptides known as phyllomedusins, dermorphins, and phyllocaeruleins. These peptides are known to interact with the body’s systems in various ways.

Dermorphins, for instance, are potent opioid-like peptides that can interact with the body’s opioid receptors. They have shown to have a range of effects, potentially acting as pain relievers or modulating the nervous system.

Phyllomedusins and phyllocaeruleins, on the other hand, might affect blood pressure and the cardiovascular system. They are believed to be vasodilators, which means they can widen blood vessels, potentially leading to a decrease in blood pressure.

Moreover, these peptides are thought to have antimicrobial properties. In nature, frogs produce these substances as a defense mechanism against pathogens. Research suggests that the peptides in Kambo might have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral properties

The combination of these peptides in Kambo creates a potent and multifaceted substance that, when administered, can induce various physiological responses in the body. Traditional uses of Kambo include its application to the skin after superficial burns or through small burns or scratches, allowing these peptides to enter the body and potentially exert their effects.

The processes begins with drinking about a liter of water. Next, a practitioner will use a burning stick to create a number of small burns on the skin, resulting in blisters. The blistered skin is then scraped off, and the kambo is applied to the wounds. From the wound, the kambo enters the lymphatic system and bloodstream, where it’s said to race around the body scanning for problems. This usually results in some immediate side effects, especially vomiting. Once these effects begin to fade, the person will be given water or tea to help flush out the toxins and rehydrate.

For eithical use of Kambo, it’s important to find a practitioner who sources Kambo with care. The secretion of the frog can be removed gently and in moderation; some indigenous traditons sing to the frog so that it releases its secretion out of joy. This procces should only be done during rainy seasons, because the secretion is also used to protect the frog from strong UV rays in the treetops. It is best to work with the guidence of indigenous traditions to maintain a balanced relationship with the frogs. 

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